Genghis khan: Tengrist belief and tolerance

  • С. Шамахай Eurasian national university named after L. Gumilev
  • Ғ. Есім Eurasian national university named after L. Gumilev

Abstract

In article is considered features Tengrist religion in the XІІІ century which is transformed from timeSumer and features development as the Eternal Sky on influence Genghis khan, his religious and philosophicalconclusions, and is also shown the tolerant attitude to religious beliefs.During Genghis khan’s era were made changes to Tengrist beliefs of Mongols. For example, in Tengrismthere were no ideas of paradise and hell. However, in connection with the excited actions, SacredChan Chun in whom was invited by Genghis khan appears concepts about aspiration to the benefit.During this period religious beliefs of Mongols reach top, and is created. monotheist belief of theEternal Sky. Genghis, the khan, taking Tengriism in the basis, proves the idea of the Eternal Sky and usesit: in the sky – Eternal Tengri, and on the earth – Kagan (Khan).According to this principle, Sky (Tengri) carrier of world boundless will, only source of the divinepower. It supports by the clemency Kagan. Kagan governs on behalf of Tengri and carries out heavenlywill on the earth.Kagan on the basis of the mind and charisma personifies heavenly grace. Both in the sky there isuniform Tengri, and on the earth there has to be one Kagan. Therefore, the Mongolian khan rules over allcountries of the world «from rising to a sunset».Besides, Chinghiz khan adhered to the principle of religious tolerance. He created the liberal preceptsof law. It had a requirement: «All religions deserve respect, but any of them should not dominate».This requirement was observed also by Chingiz khan’s descendants after his death. The younger sonGenghis khan’s Toluy and his spouse, poetess and the statesman Sorkaktani begy, Monke khan wereguided by this rule as vital credo.As the proof of the conclusions and the principles Genghis khan is brought in article monuments towriting as «The Secret History of the Mongols», Rashid- ad-Din’s «Zhamigat аt tauarikh», Abulgazy khan’s«Shezhire Türk» and also traveling notes, historical works of art and compositions of various travelers,dervishes, wise men of the West and East invited in due time to the yard by Genghis Khan, meetingboth with great Kagan and with his successors (the Taoist monk Chan Chun, Eluy Chutsay, Peng Dai andXu Ting, the monk Giovanny del Plano Carpini, the ambassador Guillaume de Roubrouc, the Venetianmerchant Marco Polo).The purpose of article is comparative, cultural – philosophical analysis of development and changeof Tengrism during the era of Genghis khan, initial display of a research of its religious orientations. Duringthe analysis were offered new ideas concerning belief in the Eternal Sky (Tengri).During the research of a problem are applied, such methods of the philosophical and cultural analysisas unity historical and logical, a comparative, ascension from abstract to concrete, hermeneutics andthe content analysis. The semiotics analysis of essence and nature of symbolical manifestations of innerworld of the Turkic peoples and Mongols inherent in that era is carried out, they are studied on the basisof the signs characteristic of nomadic outlookKey words: Genghis khan, Tengrism, «Eternal Sky», religion, tolerance.
Published
2018-11-07
How to Cite
ШАМАХАЙ, С.; ЕСІМ, Ғ.. Genghis khan: Tengrist belief and tolerance. Journal of Philosophy, Culture and Political Science, [S.l.], v. 65, n. 3, p. 53-66, nov. 2018. ISSN 2617-5843. Available at: <http://bulletin-philospolit.kaznu.kz/index.php/1-pol/article/view/697>. Date accessed: 18 nov. 2018.